Glossary

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A

AIRBORNE TRANSMISSION

A transmission mechanism in the which the infectious agent is spread as an aerosol and usually enters a person through the respiratory tract

Anthrax

Anthrax  is the Greek word for coal and the name of an infectious disease in herbivorous animals and, less frequently, humans; the name comes from the charred looking skin lesions.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

ASEPSIS

Freedom from infection or infectious material.

Avian influenza

Avian influenza — known informally as avian flu or bird flu — refers to "influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds."[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][clarification needed] Of the greatest concern is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).

"Bird flu" is a phrase similar to "swine flu," "dog flu," "horse flu," or "human flu" in that it refers to an illness caused by any of many different strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. All known viruses that cause influenza in birds belong to the species influenza A virus. All subtypes (but not all strains of all subtypes) of influenza A virus are adapted to birds, which is why for many purposes avian flu virus is the influenza A virus. (Note, however, that the "A" does not stand for "avian").

Adaptation is not exclusive. Being adapted towards a particular species does not preclude adaptations, or partial adaptations, towards infecting different species. In this way, strains of influenza viruses are adapted to multiple species, though may be preferential towards a particular host. For example, viruses responsible for influenza pandemics are adapted to both humans and birds. Recent influenza research into the genes of the Spanish flu virus shows it to have genes adapted to both birds and humans, with more of its genes from birds than less deadly later pandemic strains.

While its most highly pathogenic strain (H5N1) had been spreading throughout Asia since 2003, avian influenza reached Europe in 2005, and the Middle East, as well as Africa, the following year.[8] On January 22, 2012, China reported its second human death due to bird flu in a month following other fatalities in Vietnam and Cambodia.[9]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

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B

BACTERIOSTATIC

Arresting the growth or multiplication of bacteria. An antibiotic may be classified as a bacteriostatic medication.

Bedpan Hygienic Cover

The Hygie Hygienic covers® for Bedpan and Commode Chair creates the perfect solution to effectively manage and contain body wastes at point of care; it also insures that health care providers adopt the best method to reduce the number of steps required , thereby reducing the spread of pathogens which may lead to contamination and HAIs.

It’s unique super-absorbent pad included in each bag is designed to turn up to 500ml of liquid wastes (urine, blood and feces) into a gel within seconds. It helps reduce the risks of splashes, spills and germ dispersal (fight against Healthcare-Associated Infections, cross-contamination…).

Bedpan Liner

The Bedpan Liner or Commode Chair creates the perfect solution to effectively manage and contain body wastes at point of care; it also insures that health care providers adopt the best method to reduce the number of steps required , thereby reducing the spread of pathogens which may lead to contamination and HAIs.

It’s unique super-absorbent pad included in each bag is designed to turn up to 500ml of liquid wastes (urine, blood and feces) into a gel within seconds. It helps reduce the risks of splashes, spills and germ dispersal (fight against Healthcare-Associated Infections, cross-contamination…).

BODY SUBSTANCE ISOLATION

A technique based upon the premise that all body substances may contain pathogens. Never touch with the bare hand anything wet that comes from the body or body cavity. Protective gloves must be worn at all times when there is contact with mucus membrane, nonintact skin, or body substances. Body substances include blood, urine, feces, saliva, wound drainage, or aspirated fluids.

Brucellosis

Brucellosis, also called Bang's disease, Crimean fever, Gibraltar fever, Malta fever, Maltese fever, Mediterranean fever, rock fever, or undulant fever,[1][2] is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unsterilizedmilk or meat from infected animals or close contact with their secretions. Transmission from human to human, through sexual contact or from mother to child, is rare but possible.[3]

Brucella spp. are small, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod shaped (coccobacilli) bacteria. They function as facultative intracellular parasites causing chronic disease, which usually persists for life. Symptoms include profuse sweating and joint and muscle pain. Brucellosis has been recognized in animals including humans since the 20th century.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

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C

Campylobacteriosis

Campylobacteriosis is an infection by the Campylobacterbacterium,[1] most commonly C. jejuni. It is among the most common bacterial infections of humans, often a foodborne illness. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody, diarrhea or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Chickenpox

Chickenpox (or chicken pox) is a highly contagious disease caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).[1] It usually starts with vesicular skin rash mainly on the body and head rather than at the periphery and becomes itchy, raw pockmarks, which mostly heal without scarring. On examination, the observer typically finds lesions at various stages of healing.

Chickenpox is an airborne disease spread easily through coughing or sneezing of ill individuals or through direct contact with secretions from the rash. A person with chickenpox is infectious one to two days before the rash appears.[2] They remain contagious until all lesions have crusted over (this takes approximately six days).[3] Immunocompromised patients are contagious during the entire period as new lesions keep appearing. Crusted lesions are not contagious.[4]

Chickenpox has been observed in other primates, including chimpanzees[5] and gorillas.[6]

There are several theories regarding the origin of the term chicken pox. It is often stated to be a modification of chickpeas (based on resemblance of the vesicles to chickpeas),[7][8] or due to the rash resembling chicken pecks.[8] Other theories include the designation chicken for a child (i.e., literally 'child pox') or a corruption of itching-pox.[7][9]Samuel Johnson explained the designation as "from its being of no very great danger."[10]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Cholera

Cholera is an infection in the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The main symptoms are profuse, watery diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission occurs primarily by drinking water or eating food that has been contaminated by the feces of an infected person, including one with no apparent symptoms. The severity of the diarrhea and vomiting can lead to rapid dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, and death in some cases. The primary treatment is oral rehydration therapy, typically with oral rehydration solution (ORS), to replace water and electrolytes. If this is not tolerated or does not provide improvement fast enough, intravenous fluids can also be used. Antibacterial drugs are beneficial in those with severe disease to shorten its duration and severity. Worldwide, it affects 3–5 million people and causes 100,000–130,000 deaths a year as of 2010[update]. Cholera was one of the earliest infections to be studied by epidemiological methods.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Clostridium botulinum

Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that produces several toxins. The best known are its neurotoxins, subdivided in types A-G, that cause the flaccid muscular paralysis seen in botulism. It is also the main paralytic agent in botox. C. botulinum is an anaerobic spore-former, which produces oval, subterminal endospores and is commonly found in soil.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Clostridium difficile

Clostridium difficile (pronunciation below) (from the Greek kloster (κλωστήρ), spindle, and Latin difficile,[1] difficult), also known as "CDF/cdf", or "C. diff", is a species of Gram-positivebacteria of the genus Clostridium that causes severe diarrhea and other intestinal disease when competing bacteria in the gut flora have been wiped out by antibiotics.

Clostridia are anaerobic, spore-forming rods (bacilli).[2] C. difficile is the most serious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and can lead to pseudomembranous colitis, a severe inflammation of the colon, often resulting from eradication of the normal gut flora by antibiotics.[3]

In a very small percentage of the adult population, C. difficile bacteria naturally reside in the gut. Other people accidentally ingest spores of the bacteria while they are patients in a hospital, nursing home, or similar facility. When the bacteria are in a colon in which the normal gut flora has been destroyed (usually after a broad-spectrum antibiotic such as clindamycin has been used), the gut becomes overrun with C. difficile. This overpopulation is harmful because the bacteria release toxins that can cause bloating and diarrhea, with abdominal pain, which may become severe. C. difficile infections are the most common cause of pseudomembranous colitis, and in rare cases this can progress to toxic megacolon, which can be life-threatening.

Latent symptoms of C. difficile infection often mimic some flu-like symptoms and can mimic disease flare in patients with inflammatory bowel disease-associated colitis.[4] Mild cases of C. difficile infection can often be cured by discontinuing the antibiotics responsible.[2] In more serious cases, oral administration of, first, oral metronidazole and — if that fails — then, second, vancomycin and if unsuccessful again, intravenous metronidazole can be used. Relapses of C. difficile AAD have been reported in up to 20% of cases.[2]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Clostridium perfringens

Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-formingbacterium of the genus Clostridium.[1] C. perfringens is ever present in nature and can be found as a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediment, the intestinal tract of humans and other vertebrates, insects, and soil.

C. perfringens is the third most common cause of food poisoning in the United Kingdom and the United States[2] though it can sometimes be ingested and cause no harm.[3]

Infections due to C. perfringens show evidence of tissue necrosis, bacteremia, emphysematouscholecystitis, and gas gangrene, which is also known as clostridial myonecrosis. The toxin involved in gas gangrene is known as α-toxin, which inserts into the plasma membrane of cells, producing gaps in the membrane that disrupt normal cellular function.[2] C. perfringens can participate in polymicrobial anaerobic infections.[4] Clostridium perfringens is commonly encountered in infections as a component of the normal flora.[5] In this case, its role in disease is minor.

The action of C. perfringens on dead bodies is known to mortuary workers as tissue gas and can be halted only by embalming.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

COLONIZATION

The presence and multiplication of microorganisms without tissue invasion or damage. The infected individual demonstrates no signs or symptoms of infection, while the potential to infect others still exists.

Commode Liner

The Hygie Commode Liner creates the perfect solution to effectively manage and contain body wastes at point of care; it also insures that health care providers adopt the best method to reduce the number of steps required , thereby reducing the spread of pathogens which may lead to contamination and HAIs.

It’s unique super-absorbent pad included in each bag is designed to turn up to 500ml of liquid wastes (urine, blood and feces) into a gel within seconds. It helps reduce the risks of splashes, spills and germ dispersal (fight against Healthcare-Associated Infections, cross-contamination…).

Common cold

The common cold (also known as nasopharyngitis, rhinopharyngitis, acute coryza, or a cold) is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract which affects primarily the nose. Symptoms include coughing, sore throat, runny nose, and fever which usually resolve in seven to ten days, with some symptoms lasting up to three weeks. Well over 200 viruses are implicated in the cause of the common cold; the rhinoviruses are the most common.

Upper respiratory tract infections are loosely divided by the areas they affect, with the common cold primarily affecting the nose, the throat (pharyngitis), and the sinuses (sinusitis). Symptoms are mostly due to the body's immune response to the infection rather than to tissue destruction by the viruses themselves. The primary method of prevention is by hand washing with some evidence to support the effectiveness of wearing face masks.

No cure for the common cold exists, but the symptoms can be treated. It is the most frequent infectious disease in humans with the average adult contracting two to three colds a year and the average child contracting between six and twelve. These infections have been with humanity since antiquity.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

CONTACT TRANSMISSION

The physical transfer of an organism between an infected or colonized person and a susceptible host involving direct or indirect contact. Indirect contact occurs when a patient comes in contact with equipment contaminated with infectious microorganisms. Direct contact occurs when an infected person transfers the organism directly to a susceptible host. If a nurse touches a patient's wound and pathogenic microorganisms come in contact with a cut on the nurse's hand, the nurse becomes infected through direct transmission.

Cryptococcosis

Cryptococcosis, or cryptococcal disease, is a potentially fatal fungal disease. It is caused by one of two species; Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. These were all previously thought to be subspecies of C. neoformans, but have now been identified as distinct species.

Cryptococcosis is believed to be acquired by inhalation of the infectious propagule from the environment. Although the exact nature of the infectious propagule is unknown, the leading hypothesis is the basidiospore created through sexual or asexual reproduction.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

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D

Diphtheria

Diphtheria (Greek διφθέρα (diphthera) "pair of leather scrolls") is an upper respiratory tract illness caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, a facultative anaerobic, Gram-positivebacterium.[1][2] It is characterized by sore throat, low fever, and an adherent membrane (a pseudomembrane) on the tonsils, pharynx, and/or nasal cavity.[3] A milder form of diphtheria can be restricted to the skin. Less common consequences include myocarditis (about 20% of cases) [4] and peripheral neuropathy (about 10% of cases).[5]

Diphtheria is a contagious disease spread by direct physical contact or breathing the aerosolized secretions of infected individuals. Historically quite common, diphtheria has largely been eradicated in industrialized nations through widespread vaccination. In the United States, for example, there were 52 reported cases of diphtheria between 1980 and 2000; between 2000 and 2007, there were only three cases[6] as the diphtheria–pertussistetanus(DPT) vaccine is recommended for all school-age children. Boosters of the vaccine are recommended for adults, since the benefits of the vaccine decrease with age without constant re-exposure; they are particularly recommended for those traveling to areas where the disease has not been eradicated.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

DROPLET TRANSMISSION

Inhalation of respiratory pathogenic microorganisms suspended on liquid particles exhaled by someone already infected. For example, a patient suffering from an upper respiratory infection sneezes, allowing pathogenic microorganisms to exit the patient's body and be inhaled by another person within close proximity.

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E

Emesis Bag

The Hygie Emesis bag contains the emesis and helps avoid the usual nuisances: odours, splashes, soiled linen. The super-absorbent pad, turns vomit into gel, blocks smells, and helps limit the spread of harmful germs. Simple to use, the Emesis bag eases the work of health and emergency workers (EMTs, firefighters, etc), and provides added protection when carrying and disposing of organic liquids and matter. The Emesis bag makes vomiting less degrading for the sick and less offensive and risky for surrounding people and healthcare workers.

It’s unique super-absorbent pad included in each bag is designed to turn up to 500ml of urine into a gel within seconds. It helps reduce the risks of splashes, spills and germ dispersal (fight against Healthcare-Associated Infections, cross-contamination…).

Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli - is a Gram-negative, rod-shapedbacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in humans, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination. The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2,[4] and by preventing the establishment of pathogenic bacteria within the intestine.

E. coli and related bacteria constitute about 0.1% of gut flora,[7] and fecal–oral transmission is the major route through which pathogenic strains of the bacterium cause disease. Cells are able to survive outside the body for a limited amount of time, which makes them ideal indicator organisms to test environmental samples for fecal contamination. There is, however, a growing body of research that has examined environmentally persistent E. coli which can survive for extended periods of time outside of the host

The bacterium can also be grown easily and inexpensively in a laboratory setting, and has been intensively investigated for over 60 years. E. coli is the most widely studied prokaryoticmodel organism, and an important species in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology, where it has served as the host organism for the majority of work with recombinant DNA.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

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G

Gianotti–Crosti syndrome

 

Gianotti–Crosti syndrome (also known as "Infantile papular acrodermatitis,"[1] "Papular acrodermatitis of childhood,"[1] and "Papulovesicular acrolocated syndrome"[2]:389) is a reaction of the skin to a viral infection.[3]Hepatitis B[4] and Epstein-Barr virus are the most frequently reported etiologies. Other incriminated viruses are hepatitis A, hepatitis non A-non B, cytomegalovirus,[5]coxsackie, adenovirus, enterovirus, rotavirus, rubella, HIV and parainfluenza.[6]

It is named for Ferdinando Gianotti and Agostino Crosti.[7][8]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

 

Giardiasis

Giardiasis — popularly known as beaver fever — is a disease caused by the flagellate protozoanGiardia lamblia (also sometimes called Giardia intestinalis and Giardia duodenalis).[1] The giardia organism inhabits the digestive tract of a wide variety of domestic and wild animal species, as well as humans. It is a common cause of gastroenteritis in humans, infecting approximately 200 million people worldwide.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

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H

Hand washing

Hand washing for hand hygiene is the act of cleaning one's hands with or without the use of water or another liquid, or with the use of soap, for the purpose of removing soil, dirt, and/or microorganisms.

Medical hand hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices related to the administration of medicine and medical care that prevents or minimizes disease and the spreading of disease. The main medical purpose of washing hands is to cleanse the hands of pathogens(including bacteria or viruses) and chemicals which can cause personal harm or disease. This is especially important for people who handle food or work in the medical field, but it is also an important practice for the general public. People can become infected with respiratory illnesses such as influenza or the common cold, for example, if they don't wash their hands before touching their eyes, nose, or mouth. Indeed, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has stated: "It is well documented that one of the most important measures for preventing the spread of pathogens is effective hand washing." As a general rule, handwashing protects people poorly or not at all from droplet- and airborne diseases, such as measles, chickenpox, influenza, and tuberculosis. It protects best against diseases transmitted through fecal-oral routes (such as many forms of stomach flu) and direct physical contact (such as impetigo).

In addition to hand washing with soap and water, the use of alcohol gels is another form of killing some kinds of pathogens and healthful bacteria, but their effectiveness is disputed, and may lead to antibiotica-resistant bacterial strains.[1][2]

Source : www.wikipedia.org 

Hand, foot and mouth disease

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a human syndrome caused by intestinal viruses of the picornaviridaefamily. The most common strains causing HFMD are coxsackie Avirus and enterovirus 71 (EV-71).[1]

HFMD usually affects infants and children, and is quite common. It is moderately contagious and is spread through direct contact with the mucus, saliva, or feces of an infected person. It typically occurs in small epidemics in nursery schools or kindergartens, usually during the summer and autumn months. The usual incubation period is 3–7 days.

It is less common in adults, but those with immune deficiencies are very susceptible. HFMD is not to be confused with foot-and-mouth disease (also called hoof-and-mouth disease), which is a separate disease affecting sheep, cattle, and swine (both are caused by members of the picornaviridae family, but are not trans-communicable between humans and livestock).

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Hantaviruses

Hantaviruses are negative sense RNA viruses in the Bunyaviridae family. Humans may be infected with hantaviruses through urine, saliva or contact with rodent waste products. Some hantaviruses cause potentially fatal diseases in humans, such as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), but others have not been associated with human disease.[1]

Human infections of hantaviruses have almost entirely been linked to human contact with rodent excrement, but recent human-to-human transmission has been reported with the Andes virus in South America.[1] The name hantavirus is derived from the Hantan River area in South Korea, which provided the founding member of the group: Hantaan virus (HTNV), isolated in the late 1970s by Ho-Wang Lee and colleagues.[2] HTNV is one of several hantaviruses that cause HFRS, formerly known as Korean hemorrhagic fever.[3]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Hepatitis

Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatorycells in the tissue of the organ. The name is from the Greek hepar (ἧπαρ), the root being hepat- (ἡπατ-), meaning liver, and suffix -itis, meaning "inflammation" (c. 1727).[1] The condition can be self-limiting (healing on its own) or can progress to fibrosis (scarring) and cirrhosis.

Hepatitis may occur with limited or no symptoms, but often leads to jaundice, anorexia (poor appetite) and malaise. Hepatitis is acute when it lasts less than six months and chronic when it persists longer. A group of viruses known as the hepatitis viruses cause most cases of hepatitis worldwide, but hepatitis can also be caused by toxins (notably alcohol, certain medications, some industrial organic solvents and plants), other infections and autoimmune diseases.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is an infectious inflammatory illness of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects hominoidea, including humans. Originally known as "serum hepatitis",[1] the disease has caused epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa, and it is endemic in China.[2] About a third of the world population has been infected at one point in their lives,[3] including 350 million who are chronic carriers.[4]

The virus is transmitted by exposure to infectious blood or body fluids such as semen and vaginal fluids, while viral DNA has been detected in the saliva, tears, and urine of chronic carriers. Perinatal infection is a major route of infection in endemic (mainly developing) countries.[5] Other risk factors for developing HBV infection include working in a healthcare setting, transfusions, dialysis, acupuncture, tattooing, extended overseas travel, and residence in an institution.[3][6][7] However, Hepatitis B viruses cannot be spread by holding hands, sharing eating utensils or drinking glasses, kissing, hugging, coughing, sneezing, or breastfeeding.[8][9]

The acute illness causes liver inflammation, vomiting, jaundice and, rarely, death. Chronic hepatitis B may eventually cause cirrhosis and liver cancer—a disease with poor response to all but a few current therapies.[10] The infection is preventable by vaccination.[11]

Hepatitis B virus is an hepadnavirushepa from hepatotropic (attracted to the liver) and dna because it is a DNA virus[12]—and it has a circular genome of partially double-stranded DNA. The viruses replicate through an RNA intermediate form by reverse transcription, which in practice relates them to retroviruses.[13] Although replication takes place in the liver, the virus spreads to the blood where viral proteins and antibodies against them are found in infected people.[14] The hepatitis B virus is 50 to 100 times more infectious than HIV.[15]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting primarily the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV).[1] The infection is often asymptomatic, but chronic infection can lead to scarring of the liver and ultimately to cirrhosis, which is generally apparent after many years. In some cases, those with cirrhosis will go on to develop liver failure, liver cancer or life-threatening esophageal and gastric varices.[1]

HCV is spread primarily by blood-to-blood contact associated with intravenous drug use, poorly sterilized medical equipment and transfusions. An estimated 130–170 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C. The existence of hepatitis C (originally "non-A non-B hepatitis") was postulated in the 1970s and proven in 1989.[2] Hepatitis C only infects humans and chimpanzees.[3]

The virus persists in the liver in about 85% of those infected. This persistent infection can be treated with medication: the standard therapy is a combination of peginterferon and ribavirin, with either boceprevir or telaprevir added in some cases. Overall, 50–80% of people treated are cured. Those who develop cirrhosis or liver cancer may require a liver transplant. Hepatitis C is the leading cause of liver transplantation, though the virus usually recurs after transplantation.[4] No vaccine against hepatitis C is available.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Histoplasmosis

Histoplasmosis (also known as "Cave disease,"[1] "Darling's disease,"[1] "Ohio valley disease,"[1] "Reticuloendotheliosis,"[1] "Spelunker’s Lung" and Caver's disease) is a disease caused by the fungusHistoplasma capsulatum. Symptoms of this infection vary greatly, but the disease primarily affects the lungs.[2] Occasionally, other organs are affected; this is called disseminated histoplasmosis, and it can be fatal if left untreated. Histoplasmosis is common among AIDS patients because of their suppressed immune system.[3] Histoplasmosis is generally contracted from contact to microscopic fungi borne from decomposing biological fluids, most notably human excretions like urine, vomit, and feces. Cases of histoplasmosis have declined acutely since the Industrial Revolution as quality of life improved dramatically and humans were no longer living in their own squalor. Unfortunately, it is still a major killer in third world countries and can be contracted easily in the first world by living among the aforementioned human fluids.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

HIV/AIDS

Human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).[1] During the initial infection a person may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. This is typically followed by a prolonged period without symptoms. As the illness progresses it interferes more and more with the immune system, making people much more likely to get infections, including opportunistic infections, and tumors that do not usually affect people with working immune systems.

HIV is transmitted primarily via unprotected sexual intercourse (including anal and even oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions and hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding.[2] Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV.[3] Prevention of HIV infection, primarily through safe sex and needle-exchange programs, is a key strategy to control the spread of the disease. There is no cure or vaccine; however, antiretroviral treatment can slow the course of the disease and may lead to a near-normal life expectancy. While antiretroviral treatment reduces the risk of death and complications from the disease, these medications are expensive and may be associated with side effects.

Genetic research indicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa during the early twentieth century.[4] AIDS was first recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1981 and its cause—HIV infection—was identified in the early part of the decade.[5] Since its discovery, AIDS has caused nearly 30 million deaths (as of 2009).[6] As of 2010, approximately 34 million people have contracted HIV globally.[7] AIDS is considered a pandemic—a disease outbreak which is present over a large area and is actively spreading.[8]

HIV/AIDS has had a great impact on society, both as an illness and as a source of discrimination. The disease also has significant economic impacts. There are many misconceptions about HIV/AIDS such as the belief that it can be transmitted by casual non-sexual contact. The disease has also become subject to many controversies involving religion.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Human papillomavirus

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus from the papillomavirus family that is capable of infecting humans. Like all papillomaviruses, HPVs establish productive infections only in keratinocytes of the skin or mucous membranes. While the majority of the known types of HPV cause no symptoms in most people, some types can cause warts (verrucae), while others can – in a minority of cases – lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, oropharynx and anus.[1] Recently, HPV has been linked with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.[2] In addition, HPV 16 and 18 infections are strongly associated with an increased odds ratio of developing oropharyngeal (throat) cancer.[3]

More than 30 to 40 types of HPV are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region. Some sexually transmitted HPV types may cause genital warts. Persistent infection with "high-risk" HPV types — different from the ones that cause skin warts — may progress to precancerous lesions and invasive cancer.[4] HPV infection is a cause of nearly all cases of cervical cancer.[5] However, most infections with these types do not cause disease.

Most HPV infections in young females are temporary and have little long-term significance. Seventy percent of infections are gone in 1 year and ninety percent in 2 years.[6] However, when the infection persists — in 5% to 10% of infected women — there is high risk of developing precancerous lesions of the cervix, which can progress to invasive cervical cancer. This process usually takes 10–15 years, providing many opportunities for detection and treatment of the pre-cancerous lesion. Progression to invasive cancer can be almost always prevented when standard prevention strategies are applied, but the lesions still cause considerable burden necessitating preventive surgeries, which do in many cases involve loss of fertility.

In more developed countries, cervical screening using a Papanicolaou (Pap) test or liquid-based cytology is used to detect abnormal cells that may develop into cancer. If abnormal cells are found, women are invited to have a colposcopy. During a colposcopic inspection, biopsies can be taken and abnormal areas can be removed with a simple procedure, typically with a cauterizing loop or, more commonly in the developing world — by freezing (cryotherapy). Treating abnormal cells in this way can prevent them from developing into cervical cancer.

Pap smears have reduced the incidence and fatalities of cervical cancer in the developed world, but even so there were 11,000 cases and 3,900 deaths in the U.S. in 2008. Cervical cancer has substantial mortality in resource-poor areas; worldwide, there are an estimated 490,000 cases and 270,000 deaths each year.[7][8]

HPV vaccines (Cervarix and Gardasil), which prevent infection with the HPV types (16 and 18) that cause 70% of cervical cancer, may lead to further decreases.[7][9]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Human waste

Human waste is a waste type usually used to refer to byproducts of digestion, such as feces and urine. Human waste is most often transported as sewage in waste waterthrough sewerage systems. Alternatively it is disposed of in nappies (diapers) in municipal solid waste.

Human waste is considered a biowaste

 as it is a good vector for both viral and bacterial diseases. It can be a serious health hazard if it gets into sources of drinking water. The World Heath Organization reports that nearly 2.2 million people die annually from diseases caused by contaminated water. A major accomplishment of human civilization has been the reduction of disease transmission via human waste through the practice of hygiene and sanitation, including the development of sewage systems and plumbing.

The amount of water needed to process human waste can be reduced by the use of waterless urinals and composting toilets and by recycling greywater

. The most common method of waste treatment in rural areas where municipal sewage systems are unavailable is the use of septic tank systems. In remote rural places without sewage or septic systems, small populations allow for the continued use of honey buckets and sewage lagoons (see anaerobic lagoon) without the threat of disease presented by places with denser populations. Honey buckets are used by rural villages in Alaska where, due to permafrost, conventional waste treatment systems cannot be utilised.

Human waste is used to irrigate and fertilize fields in many parts of the developing world where fresh water is unavailable. Sri Lanka's International Water Management Institute (IWMI) published a report which suggests that there is great potential for wastewater agriculture to produce more food for consumers in urban areas, as long as there is sufficient education about the dangers of eating such food uncooked.[1]

Human waste that has been treated by a hot composting process can safely be used to improve the soil for food crops.[2]

Source : www.wikipedia.org 

Hy21 Bedpan

The hy21® technology helps to effectively manage and contain bodily wastes at point of care.

The hy21® Bedpan Support replaces the standard and orthopedic bedpan by offering a 2-in-1 design which combines the benefits of both bedpan types. The revolutionary hy21® technology will facilitate handling and use for all patient types requiring a bedpan.

Indicated for single patient use, the hy21® Bedpan support helps reduce the time needed to dispose of organic waste, to wash, and to disinfect dirty equipments.

The handles built into the  hy21® Bedpan Support provide a better grip and allows for better handling when assisting patients.

The bedpan edges offer greater stability and improved comfort to patients.

The uniquely angled design of the  hy21® Bedpan Support considerably reduces movement, providing increased safety during use.

The hy21® Bedpan Support is entirely made of durable and recyclable polypropylene plastic.

Hygiene

Hygiene is a set of practices performed for the preservation of health. While in modern medical sciences there is a set of standards of hygiene recommended for different situations, what is considered hygienic or not can vary between different cultures, genders andetarian groups

. Some regular hygienic practices may be considered good habits by a society while the neglect of hygiene can be considered disgusting, disrespectful or even threatening.

Sanitation involves the hygienic disposal and treatment by the civic authority of potentially unhealthy human waste, such as sewerage and drainage.

Source : www.wikipedia.org 

Hygienic Cover

Hygienic cover facilitates your care at home. The cover protects the support and contains an absorbent pad which solidifies biological liquids. It blocks odour spreading, reduces cleaning tasks and makes the collection, transportation and disposal safer. Multiple uses: camping, travelling, driving, boating and hiking.

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I

INCUBATION

The time between exposure to an infectious organism and the appearance of clinical systems of disease.

INFECTION CONTROL

Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection, a practical (rather than academic) sub-discipline of epidemiology. It is an essential, though often underrecognized and undersupported, part of the infrastructure of health care. Infection control and hospital epidemiology are akin to public health practice, practiced within the confines of a particular health-care delivery system rather than directed at society as a whole.

Infection control addresses factors related to the spread of infections within the health-care setting (whether patient-to-patient, from patients to staff and from staff to patients, or among-staff), including prevention (via hand hygiene/hand washing, cleaning/disinfection/sterilization, vaccination, surveillance), monitoring/investigation of demonstrated or suspected spread of infection within a particular health-care setting (surveillance and outbreak investigation), and management (interruption of outbreaks). It is on this basis that the common title being adopted within health care is "Infection Prevention & Control."

INFECTIOUS AGENT

A microbial organism with the ability to cause disease. The greater the organism's virulence (ability to grow and multiply), invasiveness (ability to enter tissue), and pathogenicity (ability to cause disease), the greater the possibility that the organism will cause an infection. Infectious agents are bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.

Influenza

Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae, the influenza viruses. The most common symptoms are chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, headache (often severe), coughing, weakness/fatigue and general discomfort.[1] Although it is often confused with other influenza-like illnesses, especially the common cold, influenza is a more severe disease caused by a different type of virus.[2] Influenza may produce nausea and vomiting, particularly in children,[1] but these symptoms are more common in the unrelated gastroenteritis, which is sometimes inaccurately referred to as "stomach flu" or "24-hour flu".[3]

Flu can occasionally lead to pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia, even for persons who are usually very healthy.[4][5][6] In particular it is a warning sign if a child (or presumably an adult) seems to be getting better and then relapses with a high fever as this relapse may be bacterial pneumonia.[7] Another warning sign is if the person starts to have trouble breathing.[6]

Typically, influenza is transmitted through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus. Influenza can also be transmitted by direct contact with bird droppings or nasal secretions, or through contact with contaminated surfaces. Airborne aerosols have been thought to cause most infections, although which means of transmission is most important is not absolutely clear.[8] Influenza viruses can be inactivated by sunlight, disinfectants and detergents.[9][10] As the virus can be inactivated by soap, frequent hand washing reduces the risk of infection.[11]

Influenza spreads around the world in seasonal epidemics, resulting in about three to five million yearly cases of severe illness and about 250,000 to 500,000 yearly deaths,[12] rising to millions in some pandemic years. In the 20th century three influenza pandemics occurred, each caused by the appearance of a new strain of the virus in humans, and killed tens of millions of people. Often, new influenza strains appear when an existing flu virus spreads to humans from another animal species, or when an existing human strain picks up new genes from a virus that usually infects birds or pigs. An avian strain named H5N1 raised the concern of a new influenza pandemic after it emerged in Asia in the 1990s, but it has not evolved to a form that spreads easily between people.[13] In April 2009 a novel flu strain evolved that combined genes from human, pig, and bird flu. Initially dubbed "swine flu" and also known as influenza A/H1N1, it emerged in Mexico, the United States, and several other nations. The World Health Organization officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on 11 June 2009 (see 2009 flu pandemic). The WHO's declaration of a pandemic level 6 was an indication of spread, not severity, the strain actually having a lower mortality rate than common flu outbreaks.[14]

Vaccinations against influenza are usually made available to people in developed countries.[15] Farmed poultry is often vaccinated to avoid decimation of the flocks.[16] The most common human vaccine is the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) that contains purified and inactivated antigens against three viral strains. Typically, this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain.[17] The TIV carries no risk of transmitting the disease, and it has very low reactivity. A vaccine formulated for one year may be ineffective in the following year, since the influenza virus evolves rapidly, and new strains quickly replace the older ones. Antiviral drugs such as the neuraminidase inhibitoroseltamivir (Tamiflu) have been used to treat influenza;[18] however, their effectiveness is difficult to determine due to much of the data remaining unpublished.[19]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Influenza A virus subtype H1N1

For the H1N1/09 virus strain responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic, see Pandemic H1N1/09 virus. For the 2009 pandemic Influenza A(H1N1), see 2009 flu pandemic. For the 1918 pandemic of Influenza A(H1N1), see 1918 flu pandemic.

Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009. Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all seasonal influenza. H1N1 strains caused a small percentage of all human flu infections in 2004–2005.[1] Other strains of H1N1 are endemic in pigs (swine influenza) and in birds (avian influenza).

In June 2009, the World Health Organization declared the new strain of swine-origin H1N1 as a pandemic. This strain is often called swine flu by the public media. This novel virus spread worldwide and had caused about 17,000 deaths by the start of 2010. On August 10, 2010, the World Health Organization declared the H1N1 influenza pandemic over, saying worldwide flu activity had returned to typical seasonal patterns.[2]

As of 26 April 2011, an H1N1 pandemic preparedness alert has been issued by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for the Americas.[3] The affected areas have included the Chihuahua region of Mexico where its severity and work load have been high. It is reported by the aforementioned Recombinomics source that the current vaccine (California/7/2009) for H1N1 influenza lost its effectiveness in 2011. This point is all the more significant since it is the current virus target for the northern hemisphere's flu vaccine, and is the intended choice for the southern hemisphere.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

ISOLATION

Techniques used to prevent or limit the spread of infection. Patients diagnosed with an infectious disease are placed on isolation to prevent the transmission of pathogens to others.

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Japanese encephalitis

Japanese encephalitis previously known as Japanese B encephalitis to distinguish it from von Economo's A encephalitis—is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. The Japanese encephalitis virus is a virus from the family Flaviviridae.

Domestic pigs and wild birds (herons) are reservoirs of the virus; transmission to humans may cause severe symptoms. Amongst the most important vectors of this disease are the mosquitoes Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex vishnui. This disease is most prevalent in Southeast Asia and the Far East.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

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L

Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis (also known as Weil's syndrome, canicola fever, canefield fever, nanukayami fever, 7-day fever, Rat Catcher's Yellows, Fort Bragg fever, black jaundice, and Pretibial fever[1]:290) is caused by infection with bacteria of the genusLeptospira and affects humans as well as other animals.

Leptospirosis is among the world's most common diseases transmitted to people from animals. The infection is commonly transmitted to humans by allowing water that has been contaminated by animal urine to come in contact with unhealed breaks in the skin, the eyes, or with the mucous membranes. Outside of tropical areas, leptospirosis cases have a relatively distinct seasonality with most cases occurring in spring and autumn.[citation needed]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Listeria monocytogenes

Listeria monocytogenes is the bacterium that causes the infection listeriosis. It is a facultative anaerobic bacterium, capable of growing and reproducing inside the host's cells, and is one of the most virulent food-borne pathogens, with 20 to 30 percent of clinical infections resulting in death.[1] Responsible for approximately 2,500 illnesses and 500 deaths in the United States (U.S.) annually, listeriosis is the leading cause of death among foodborne bacterial pathogens, with fatality rates exceeding even Salmonella and Clostridium botulinum.

L. monocytogenes is a Gram-positivebacterium, in the division Firmicutes, named for Joseph Lister. Motile via flagella at 30°C and below, but usually not at 37°C,[2] L. monocytogenes can instead move within eukaryotic cells by explosive polymerization of actin filaments (known as comet tails or actin rockets).

Studies suggest up to 10% of human gastrointestinal tracts may be colonized by L. monocytogenes.[1]

Nevertheless, clinical diseases due to L. monocytogenes are more frequently recognized by veterinarians, especially as meningoencephalitis in ruminants. See: listeriosis in animals.

Due to its frequent pathogenicity, causing meningitis in newborns (acquired transvaginally), pregnant mothers are often advised not to eat soft cheeses such as Brie, Camembert, feta, and queso blanco fresco, which may be contaminated with and permit growth of L. monocytogenes.[3] It is the third-most-common cause of meningitis in newborns.

More recently, L. monocytogenes has been used as the model organism to illustrate the pathobiotechnology concept.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Lyme disease

Lyme disease, Lyme borreliosis is an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genusBorrelia.[1][2]Borrelia burgdorferisensu stricto[3] is the main cause of Lyme disease in North America, whereas Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii cause most European cases. The disease is named after the towns of Lyme and Old Lyme, Connecticut, USA, where a number of cases were identified in 1975. Although Allen Steere realized that Lyme disease was a tick-borne disease in 1978, the cause of the disease remained a mystery until 1981, when B. burgdorferi was identified by Willy Burgdorfer.

Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere.[4] Borrelia is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected ticks belonging to a few species of the genus Ixodes ("hard ticks").[5] Early symptoms may include fever, headache, fatigue, depression, and a characteristic circular skin rash called erythema migrans (EM). Left untreated, later symptoms may involve the joints, heart, and central nervous system. In most cases, the infection and its symptoms are eliminated by antibiotics, especially if the illness is treated early.[6] Delayed or inadequate treatment can lead to the more serious symptoms, which can be disabling and difficult to treat.[7]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

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Malaria

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by protists (a type of microorganism) of the genus Plasmodium. It begins with a bite from an infected female mosquito, which introduces the protists via its saliva into the circulatory system, and ultimately to the liver where they mature and reproduce. The disease causes symptoms that typically include fever and headache, which in severe cases can progress to coma or death. Malaria is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions in a broad band around the equator, including much of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas.

Five species of Plasmodium can infect and be transmitted by humans. The vast majority of deaths are caused by P. falciparum while P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae cause a generally milder form of malaria that is rarely fatal. The zoonotic species P. knowlesi, prevalent in Southeast Asia, causes malaria in macaques but can also cause severe infections in humans. Malaria is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions because rainfall, warm temperatures, and stagnant waters provide habitats ideal for mosquito larvae. Disease transmission can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites by distribution of mosquito nets and insect repellents, or with mosquito-control measures such as spraying insecticides and draining standing water.

Malaria is typically diagnosed by the microscopic examination of blood using blood films, or with antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests. Modern techniques that use the polymerase chain reaction to detect parasite DNA have also been developed, but these are not widely used in malaria-endemic areas due to their cost and complexity. The World Health Organization has estimated that in 2010, there were 216 million documented cases of malaria. That year, between 655,000 and 1.2 million people died from the disease (roughly 2000–3000 per day),[1] many of whom were children in Africa. The actual number of deaths is not known with certainty, as precise statistics are unavailable in many rural areas, and many cases are undocumented. Malaria is commonly associated with poverty and may also be a major hindrance to economic development.

Despite a need, no effective vaccine currently exists, although efforts to develop one are ongoing. Several medications are available to prevent malaria in travellers to malaria-endemic countries (prophylaxis). A variety of antimalarial medications are available. Severe malaria is treated with intravenous or intramuscularquinine or, since the mid-2000s, the artemisinin derivative artesunate, which is superior to quinine in both children and adults and is given in combination with a second anti-malarial such as mefloquine. Resistance has developed to several antimalarial drugs; for example, chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum has spread to most malarial areas, and emerging resistance to artemisinin has become a problem in some parts of Southeast Asia.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Measles

Measles (also known as Rubeola, morbilli, or English measles), is an infection of the respiratory system caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. Morbilliviruses, like other paramyxoviruses, are enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses. Symptoms include fever, cough, runny nose, red eyes and a generalized, maculopapular, erythematous rash.

Measles is spread through respiration (contact with fluids from an infected person's nose and mouth, either directly or through aerosol transmission), and is highly contagious—90% of people without immunity sharing living space with an infected person will catch it. An asymptomatic incubation period occurs nine to twelve days from initial exposure[1] and infectivity lasts from two to four days prior, until two to five days following the onset of the rash (i.e. four to nine days infectivity in total).[2]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

MEDICAL ASEPSIS

Techniques used to control and to reduce the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. A medical aseptic technique is hand washing.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

Method of transfer by which the organism moves or is carried from one place to another. The hands of the health care worker may carry bacteria from one person to another.

MRSA

Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a microbe that adapted to changes in the environment to compete for survival. Staphylococcus aureus, a common organism, developed resistance to medication. Patients infected with the resistant strain may remain infected or colonized for long periods. The main mode of transmission is via the hands of the health care worker. It is important to understand the appropriate method of protection and control when providing nursing care for someone infected with MRSA.

Mumps

Mumps (epidemic parotitis) is a viral disease of the human species, caused by the mumps virus. Before the development of vaccination and the introduction of a vaccine, it was a common childhood disease worldwide. It is still a significant threat to health in the third world, and outbreaks still occur sporadically in developed countries.[1]

Painful swelling of the salivary glands (classically the parotid gland) is the most typical presentation.[2] Painful testicular swelling (orchitis) and rash may also occur. The symptoms are generally not severe in children. In teenage males and men, complications such as infertility or subfertility are more common, although still rare in absolute terms.[3][4][5] The disease is generally self-limiting, running its course before receding, with no specific treatment apart from controlling the symptoms with pain medication.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

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Neisseria meningitidis

Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a bacterium that can cause meningitis[1] and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a life-threatening sepsis. N. meningitidis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during childhood in industrialized countries and has been responsible for epidemics in Africa and in Asia.[2] Upon Gram staining, it appears as a Gram-negativediplococcus and cultures of the bacteria test positive for the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase.[3]

It exists as normal flora (nonpathogenic) in the nasopharynx of up to 5-15% of adults.[4] It causes the only form of bacterial meningitis known to occur epidemically. Streptococcus pneumoniae (aka pneumococcus) is the most common bacterial etiology of meningitis in children beyond 2 months of age(1-3 per 100,000). Meningococci only infect humans and have never been isolated from animals because the bacterium cannot get iron other than from human sources (transferrin and lactoferrin).[5]

Meningococcus is spread through the exchange of saliva and other respiratory secretions during activities like coughing, kissing, and chewing on toys. It infects the host cell by sticking to it using Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins (TAA). Though it initially produces general symptoms like fatigue, it can rapidly progress from fever, headache and neck stiffness to coma and death. The symptoms of meningitis are easily confused with those caused by other organisms such as Hemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae.[6] Death occurs in approximately 10% of cases.[5] Those with impaired immunity may be at particular risk of meningococcus (e.g. those with nephrotic syndrome or splenectomy; vaccines are given in cases of removed or non-functioning spleens).

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Nosocomial infection

A nosocomial infection, also known as a hospital-acquired infection or HAI, is an infection whose development is favoured by a hospital environment, such as one acquired by a patient during a hospital visit or one developing among hospital staff. Such infections include fungal and bacterial infections and are aggravated by the reduced resistance of individual patients.[1]

In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated roughly 1.7 million hospital-associated infections, from all types of microorganisms, including bacteria, combined, cause or contribute to 99,000 deaths each year.[2] In Europe, where hospital surveys have been conducted, the category of Gram-negative infections are estimated to account for two-thirds of the 25,000 deaths each year. Nosocomial infections can cause severe pneumonia and infections of the urinary tract, bloodstream and other parts of the body. Many types are difficult to attack with antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance is spreading to Gram-negative bacteria that can infect people outside the hospital.[2]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION

An infection acquired during hospitalization.

Notifiable disease

A notifiable disease is any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities. The collation of information allows the authorities to monitor the disease, and provides early warning of possible outbreaks. Many governments have enacted regulations for reporting of both human and animal (generally livestock) diseases. This usually happens during pandemics.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

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Occupational therapy

Occupational therapy, often abbreviated OT, is the use of treatments to develop, recover, or maintain the daily living and work skills of patients with a physical, mental or developmental condition.[1] Occupational therapy is a client-centered practice that places a premium on the progress towards the client’s goals.[2] Occupational therapy interventions focus on adapting the environment, modifying the task, teaching the skill, and educating the client/family in order to increase participation in and performance of daily activities, particularly those that are meaningful to the client.

Source : www.wikipedia.org 

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P

PARTICULATE RESPIRATOR

Mask-like apparatus that fits snugly over the nose and mouth of the health care worker and filters out organisms as small as one micron. It is worn to prevent contamination by airborne diseases such as tuberculosis.

PATHOGEN

Any disease producing microorganism.

Plague (disease)

Plague is a deadly infectious disease that is caused by the enterobacteriaYersinia pestis, named after the French-Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin. Primarily carried by rodents (most notably rats) and spread to humans via fleas, the disease is notorious throughout history, due to the unrivaled scale of death and devastation it brought. Until June 2007, plague was one of the three epidemic diseases specifically reportable to the World Health Organization (the two other ones were cholera and yellow fever).[1]

Depending on lung infection, or sanitary conditions, plague also can be spread in the air, by direct contact, or by contaminated undercooked food or materials. The symptoms of plague depend on the concentrated areas of infection in each person: such as bubonic plague in lymph nodes, septicemic plague in blood vessels, pneumonic plague in lungs, and so on. It is treatable if detected early. Plague is still endemic in some parts of the world.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis (pōlee-ō-mī-ə-lītiss), often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an acute, viral, infectious disease spread from person to person, primarily via the fecal-oral route.[1] The term derives from the Greek poliós (πολιός), meaning "grey", myelós (µυελός “marrow”), referring to the grey matter of the spinal cord, and the suffix -itis, which denotes inflammation.,[2] i.e., inflammation of the spinal cord’s grey matter, although a severe infection can extend into the brainstem and even higher structures, resulting in polioencephalitis, producing apnea that requires mechanical assistance such as an iron lung.

Although approximately 90% of polio infections cause no symptoms at all, affected individuals can exhibit a range of symptoms if the virus enters the blood stream.[3] In about 1% of cases, the virus enters the central nervous system, preferentially infecting and destroying motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness and acute flaccid paralysis. Different types of paralysis may occur, depending on the nerves involved. Spinal polio is the most common form, characterized by asymmetric paralysis that most often involves the legs. Bulbar polio leads to weakness of muscles innervated by cranial nerves. Bulbospinal polio is a combination of bulbar and spinal paralysis.[4]

Poliomyelitis was first recognized as a distinct condition by Jakob Heine in 1840.[5] Its causative agent, poliovirus, was identified in 1908 by Karl Landsteiner.[5] Although major polio epidemics were unknown before the late 19th century, polio was one of the most dreaded childhood diseases of the 20th century. Polio epidemics have crippled thousands of people, mostly young children; the disease has caused paralysis and death for much of human history. Polio had existed for thousands of years quietly as an endemicpathogen until the 1880s, when major epidemics began to occur in Europe; soon after, widespread epidemics appeared in the United States.[6]

By 1910, much of the world experienced a dramatic increase in polio cases and epidemics became regular events, primarily in cities during the summer months. These epidemics — which left thousands of children and adults paralyzed — provided the impetus for a "Great Race" towards the development of a vaccine. Developed in the 1950s, polio vaccines have reduced the global number of polio cases per year from many hundreds of thousands to under a thousand today.[7] Enhanced vaccination efforts led by Rotary International, the World Health Organization, and UNICEF should result in global eradication of the disease.[8][9]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

PORTAL OF ENTRY

An opening allowing the microorganism to enter the host. Portals include body orifices, mucus membranes, or breaks in the skin. Portals also result from tubes placed in body cavities, such as urinary catheters, or from punctures produced by invasive procedures such as intravenous fluid replacement.

PORTAL OF EXIT

A place of exit providing a way for the microorganism to leave the reservoir. For example, the microorganism may leave the reservoir through the nose or mouth when someone sneezes or coughs. Microorganisms, carried away from the body by feces, may also leave the reservoir of an infected bowel.

PROTECTIVE ISOLATION

Individuals suffering from a weakened immune system and susceptible to microorganism invasion are isolated to avoid exposure.

Psittacosis

In medicine (pulmonology), psittacosis — also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosis — is a zoonoticinfectious disease caused by a bacterium called Chlamydophila psittaci (formerly Chlamydia psittaci) and contracted from parrots, such as macaws, cockatiels and budgerigars, and pigeons, sparrows, ducks, hens, gulls and many other species of bird. The incidence of infection in canaries and finches is believed to be lower than in psittacine birds.

In certain contexts, the word "psittacosis" is used when the disease is carried by any species of bird belonging to the Psittacidae family, whereas "ornithosis" is used when other birds carry the disease.[1]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

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Q

Q fever

Q fever is a disease caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii,[1] a bacterium that affects humans and other animals. This organism is uncommon, but may be found in cattle, sheep, goats and other domestic mammals, including cats and dogs. The infection results from inhalation of a spore-like small cell variant, and from contact with the milk, urine, feces, vaginal mucus, or semen of infected animals. Rarely, the disease is tick borne.[2] The incubation period is 9–40 days. A human being can be infected by a single bacterium.[3] The bacterium is an obligate intracellular pathogen.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

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Rabies

Rabies (pronounced /ˈreɪbiːz/. From Latin: rabies, "madness") is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis in warm-blooded animals.[1] The disease is zoonotic, meaning it can be transmitted from one species to another, such as from dogs to humans, commonly by a bite from an infected animal. For a human, rabies is almost invariably fatal if postexposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system, ultimately causing disease in the brain and death.

The rabies virus travels to the brain by following the peripheral nerves. The incubation period of the disease is usually a few months in humans, depending on the distance the virus must travel to reach the central nervous system.[2] Once the rabies virus reaches the central nervous system and symptoms begin to show, the infection is virtually untreatable and usually fatal within days.

Early-stage symptoms of rabies are malaise, headache and fever, progressing to acute pain, violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, depression, and hydrophobia.[1] Finally, the patient may experience periods of mania and lethargy, eventually leading to coma. The primary cause of death is usually respiratory insufficiency.[2]

Rabies causes about 55,000 human deaths annually worldwide.[3] 95% of human deaths due to rabies occur in Asia and Africa. [4]Roughly 97% of human rabies cases result from dog bites.[5] In the US, animal control and vaccination programs have effectively eliminated domestic dogs as reservoirs of rabies.[6] In several countries, including Australia and Japan, rabies carried by terrestrial animals has been eliminated entirely.[7] While rabies had once been eradicated in the United Kingdom, infected bats have recently been found in Scotland. [8]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

RESERVOIR

A place where microorganisms can thrive and reproduce. For example, microorganisms thrive in human beings, animals, and inanimate objects, such as water, tabletops, and doorknobs.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most lethal[1] and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States. It has been diagnosed throughout the Americas. Some synonyms for Rocky Mountain spotted fever in other countries include “ticktyphus,” “Tobia fever” (Colombia), “São Paulofever” or “febre maculosa” (Brazil), and “fiebre manchada” (Mexico). It is distinct from the viral tick-borne infection, Colorado tick fever. The disease is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, a species of bacterium that is spread to humans by Dermacentorticks. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease include sudden onset of fever, headache, and muscle pain, followed by development of rash. The disease can be difficult to diagnose in the early stages, and without prompt and appropriate treatment it can be fatal.

The name “Rocky Mountain spotted fever” is somewhat of a misnomer. Beginning in the 1930s, it became clear that this disease occurred in many areas of the United States other than the Rocky Mountain region. It is now recognized that this disease is broadly distributed throughout the contiguous United States, and occurs as far north as Canada and as far south as Central America and parts of South America. Between 1981 and 1996, this disease was reported from every state of the United States except for Hawaii, Vermont, Maine, and Alaska.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever remains a serious and potentially life-threatening infectious disease. Despite the availability of effective treatment and advances in medical care, approximately three to five percent of patients who become ill with Rocky Mountain spotted fever die from the infection. However, effective antibiotic therapy has dramatically reduced the number of deaths caused by Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Before the discovery of tetracycline and chloramphenicol during the latter 1940s, as many as 30 percent of persons infected with R. rickettsii died.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Rubella

Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles,[1] is a disease caused by the rubella virus. The name "rubella" is derived from Latin, meaning little red. Rubella is also known as German measles because the disease was first described by German physicians in the mid-eighteenth century. This disease is often mild and attacks often pass unnoticed. The disease can last one to three days. Children recover more quickly than adults. Infection of the mother by Rubella virus during pregnancy can be serious; if the mother is infected within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, the child may be born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which entails a range of serious incurable illnesses. Spontaneous abortion occurs in up to 20% of cases.[2]

Rubella is a common childhood infection usually with minimal systemic upset although transient arthropathy may occur in adults. Serious complications are very rare. Apart from the effects of transplacental infection on the developing fetus, rubella is a relatively trivial infection.

Acquired (i.e. not congenital) rubella is transmitted via airborne droplet emission from the upper respiratory tract of active cases (can be passed along by the breath of people sick from Rubella). The virus may also be present in the urine, feces and on the skin. There is no carrier state: the reservoir exists entirely in active human cases. The disease has an incubation period of 2 to 3 weeks.[3] In most people the virus is rapidly eliminated. However, it may persist for some months post partum in infants surviving the CRS. These children are a significant source of infection to other infants and, more importantly, to pregnant female contacts.

The name rubella is sometimes confused with rubeola, an alternative name for measles in English-speaking countries; the diseases are unrelated.[4][5] In some other European languages, like Spanish, rubella and rubeola are synonyms, and rubeola is not an alternative name for measles.[6]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

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Salmonella

Salmonella/ˌsælməˈnɛlə/ is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, predominantly motileenterobacteria with diameters around 0.7 to 1.5 µm, lengths from 2 to 5 µm, and flagella that grade in all directions (i.e., peritrichous). They are chemoorganotrophs, obtaining their energy from oxidation and reduction reactions using organic sources, and are facultative anaerobes. Most species produce hydrogen sulfide,[1] which can readily be detected by growing them on media containing ferrous sulfate, such as TSI. Most isolates exist in two phases: a motile phase I and a nonmotile phase II. Cultures that are nonmotile upon primary culture may be switched to the motile phase using a Cragie tube.[citation needed]

Salmonella is closely related to the Escherichia genus and are found worldwide in cold- and warm-blooded animals (including humans), and in the environment. They cause illnesses such as typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and foodborne illness.[2]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is an infectious disease which most commonly affects 4-8 year old children. Symptoms include sore throat, fever and a characteristic red rash. It is usually spread by inhalation. There is no vaccine, but the disease is effectively treated with antibiotics.

Red cheeks and pale area around the mouth in scarlet fever.

Before the availability of antibiotics, scarlet fever was a major cause of death. It could also cause late complications such as glomerulonephritis and endocarditis leading to heart valve disease, all of which were protracted and often fatal afflictions at the time.

Scarlet fever is caused by erythrogenic toxin, a substance produced by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep.) when infected by a certain bacteriophage.

The term scarlatina may be used interchangeably with scarlet fever, though it is most often used to indicate the less acute form of scarlet fever seen since the beginning of the twentieth century.[1]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Sexually transmitted disease

Sexually transmitted diseases (STD), also referred to as sexually transmitted infections (STI) and venereal diseases (VD), are illnesses that have a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of human sexual behavior, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. While in the past, these illnesses have mostly been referred to as STDs or VD, in recent years the term sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has been preferred, as it has a broader range of meaning; a person may be infected, and may potentially infect others, without having a disease. Some STIs can also be transmitted via the use of IV drugneedles after its use by an infected person, as well as through childbirth or breastfeeding. Sexually transmitted infections have been well known for hundreds of years, and venereology is the branch of medicine that studies these diseases.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Smallpox

Smallpox was an infectious disease unique to humans, caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.[1] The disease is also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera, which is a derivative of the Latin varius, meaning "spotted", or varus, meaning "pimple". The term "smallpox" was first used in Britain in the 15th century to distinguish variola from the "great pox" (syphilis).[2] The last naturally occurring case of smallpox (Variola minor) was diagnosed on 26 October 1977.[3]

Smallpox localizes in small blood vessels of the skin and in the mouth and throat. In the skin it results in a characteristic maculopapular rash and, later, raised fluid-filled blisters. V. major produces a more serious disease and has an overall mortality rate of 30–35%. V. minor causes a milder form of disease (also known as alastrim, cottonpox, milkpox, whitepox, and Cuban itch) which kills about 1% of its victims.[4][5] Long-term complications of V. major infection include characteristic scars, commonly on the face, which occur in 65–85% of survivors.[6]Blindness resulting from corneal ulceration and scarring, and limb deformities due to arthritis and osteomyelitis are less common complications, seen in about 2–5% of cases.

Smallpox is believed to have emerged in human populations about 10,000 BC.[2] The earliest physical evidence of it is probably the pustular rash on the mummified body of Pharaoh Ramses V of Egypt.[7] The disease killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans annually during the closing years of the 18th century (including five reigning monarchs),[8] and was responsible for a third of all blindness.[4][9] Of all those infected, 20–60%—and over 80% of infected children—died from the disease.[10] Smallpox was responsible for an estimated 300–500 million deaths during the 20th century.[11][12][13] As recently as 1967, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 15 million people contracted the disease and that two million died in that year.[3]

After vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the WHO certified the eradication of smallpox in 1979.[3] Smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated, the other being rinderpest, which was declared eradicated in 2011.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

STANDARD PRECAUTIONS

A synthesis of universal precautions and body substance isolation techniques designed to provide protection against the transmission of bloodborne and other infectious microorganisms. These techniques are applied to all individuals regardless of medical diagnosis.

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic, aerotolerant anaerobic member of the genusStreptococcus.[1] A significant human pathogenic bacterium, S. pneumoniae was recognized as a major cause of pneumonia in the late 19th century, and is the subject of many humoral immunity studies.

Despite the name, the organism causes many types of pneumococcal infections other than pneumonia. These invasive pneumococcal diseases include acute sinusitis, otitis media, meningitis, bacteremia, sepsis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, peritonitis, pericarditis, cellulitis, and brain abscess.[2]

S. pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of bacterial meningitis in adults and young adults, along with Neisseria meningitidis, and is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adults in the USA. It is also one of the top two isolates found in ear infection, otitis media.[3] Pneumococcal pneumonia is more common in the very young and the very old.

S. pneumoniae can be differentiated from Streptococcus viridans, some of which are also alpha-hemolytic, using an optochin test, as S. pneumoniae is optochin-sensitive. S. pneumoniae can also be distinguished based on its sensitivity to lysis by bile (the so-called "bile solubility test.") The encapsulated, Gram-positive coccoid bacteria have a distinctive morphology on Gram stain, the so-called, "lancet-shaped" diplococci. They have a polysaccharide capsule that acts as a virulence factor for the organism; more than 90 different serotypes are known, and these types differ in virulence, prevalence, and extent of drug resistance.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

SURGICAL ASEPSIS

Techniques used to destroy all pathogenic organisms before they can enter the body. One surgical aseptic technique is sterilization of surgical equipment. The principles of surgical asepsis apply when invasive procedures involve placing equipment or instruments inside the human body. The principles of surgical asepsis guide the nurse who inserts a foley catheter (a sterile tube inserted to allow urine to flow from the bladder) into the patient.

SUSCEPTIBLE HOST

A person who cannot resist a microorganism invading the body, multiplying, and resulting in infection. The host is susceptible to the disease, lacking immunity or physical resistance to overcome the invasion by the pathogenic microorganism.

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Tetanus

Tetanus (from Ancient Greek: τέτανος tetanos "taut", and τείνειν teinein "to stretch")[1]is a medical condition characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. The primary symptoms are caused by tetanospasmin, a neurotoxin produced by the Gram-positive, rod-shaped, obligate anaerobic bacteriumClostridium tetani.[2]

Infection generally occurs through wound contamination and often involves a cut or deep puncture wound. As the infection progresses, muscle spasms develop in the jaw (thus the name "lockjaw") and elsewhere in the body.[2] Infection can be prevented by proper immunization and by post-exposure prophylaxis.[3]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Toilet bowl cover

The single-use Hygienic Toilet Bowl Cover® with super-absorbent pad allows regular toilets to be used as dry toilets, with no flushing required. The Hygienic Toilet Bowl Cover® is recommended for disposal of urine or stool contaminated with biocides or radioactive or chemotherapy substances. It is also ideal in situations where specimens need to be collected for analysis or simply when water is not available.

The Hygienic Toilet Bowl Covers® with super-absorbent pad is designed for the safe collecting, transporting and disposal of body fluids. The super-absorbent pad turns liquid wastes (urine, diarrhea, blood, serous fluid) into a gel within seconds.

Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoanToxoplasma gondii.[1] The parasite infects most genera of warm-blooded animals, including humans, but the primary host is the felid (cat) family. Animals are infected by eating infected meat, by ingestion of feces of a cat that has itself recently been infected, or by transmission from mother to fetus. Cats are the primary source of infection to human hosts, although contact with raw meat, especially pork, is a more significant source of human infections in some countries. Fecal contamination of hands is a significant risk factor.[2]

Up to a third of the world's human population is estimated to carry a Toxoplasma infection.[3][4] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention notes that overall seroprevalence in the United States as determined with specimens collected by the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) between 1999 and 2004 was found to be 10.8%, with seroprevalence among women of childbearing age (15 to 44 years) 11%.[5] Another study placed seroprevalence in the U.S. at 22.5%.[4] The same study claimed a seroprevalence of 75% in El Savador.[4]

During the first few weeks post-exposure, the infection typically causes a mild flu-like illness or no illness. Thereafter, the parasite rarely causes any symptoms in otherwise healthy adults. However, those with a weakened immune system, such as AIDS patients or pregnant women, may become seriously ill, and it can occasionally be fatal. The parasite can cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and neurologic diseases, and can affect the heart, liver, inner ears, and eyes (chorioretinitis). Recent research has also linked toxoplasmosis with brain cancer, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Schizophrenia.[6][7]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

TRANSMISSION-BASED PRECAUTIONS

Barrier or isolation techniques, based upon knowledge of the mode of transfer of an infectious organism, applied to control the spread of the organism. An example of a transmission based precaution is wearing protective gloves when handling body secretions infected with hepatitis B.

Trichinosis

Trichinosis, also called trichinellosis, or trichiniasis, is a parasitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked pork or wild game infected with the larvae of a species of roundwormTrichinella spiralis, commonly called the trichina worm. There are eight Trichinella species; five are encapsulated and three are not.[1] Only three Trichinella species are known to cause trichinosis: T. spiralis, T. nativa, and T. britovi.[1]

Between 2002 and 2007, 11 cases were reported to CDC each year on average in the United States;[2] these were mostly the result of eating undercooked game, bear meat, or home-reared pigs. It is common in developing countries where meat fed to pigs is raw or undercooked, but many cases also come from developed countries in Europe and North America, where raw or undercooked pork and wild game may be consumed as delicacies.[3]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle bacillus) is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis.[1] Tuberculosis typically attacks the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air when people who have an active TB infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit their saliva through the air.[2] Most infections are asymptomatic and latent, but about one in ten latent infections eventually progresses to active disease which, if left untreated, kills more than 50% of those so infected.

The classic symptoms of active TB infection are a chronic cough with blood-tingedsputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss (the latter giving rise to the formerly prevalent term "consumption"). Infection of other organs causes a wide range of symptoms. Diagnosis of active TB relies on radiology (commonly chest X-rays), as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of body fluids. Diagnosis of latent TB relies on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and/or blood tests. Treatment is difficult and requires administration of multiple antibiotics over a long period of time. Social contacts are also screened and treated if necessary. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infections. Prevention relies on screening programs and vaccination with the bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccine.

One third of the world's population is thought to have been infected with M. tuberculosis,[3] with new infections occurring at a rate of about one per second.[3] In 2007, there were an estimated 13.7 million chronic active cases globally,[4] while in 2010, there were an estimated 8.8 million new cases and 1.5 million associated deaths, mostly occurring in developing countries.[5] The absolute number of tuberculosis cases has been decreasing since 2006, and new cases have decreased since 2002.[5] The distribution of tuberculosis is not uniform across the globe; about 80% of the population in many Asian and African countries test positive in tuberculin tests, while only 5–10% of the United States population tests positive.[1] More people in the developing world contract tuberculosis because of compromised immunity, largely due to high rates of HIV infection and the corresponding development of AIDS.[6]

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Tularemia

Tularemia (also known as Pahvant Valley plague,[1] rabbit fever,[1] deer fly fever, and Ohara's fever[2]:286) is a serious infectious disease caused by the bacteriumFrancisella tularensis.[3] A Gram-negative, nonmotilecoccobacillus, the bacterium has several subspecies with varying degrees of virulence. The most important of those is F. tularensis tularensis (Type A), which is found in lagomorphs (rabbits and similar animals) in North America, and it is highly virulent in humans and domestic rabbits. F. tularensis palaearctica (Type B) occurs mainly in aquatic rodents (beavers, muskrats) in North America and in hares and small rodents in northern Eurasia. It is less virulent for humans and rabbits.[4] The primary vectors are ticks and deer flies, but the disease can also be spread through other arthropods.[3] The disease is named after Tulare County, California.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever, also known as typhoid,[1] is a common worldwide bacterial disease, transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person, which contain the bacterium Salmonella typhi, serotype Typhi.[2][3]

The disease has received various names, such as gastric fever, abdominal typhus, infantile remittant fever, slow fever, nervous fever or pythogenic fever. The name "typhoid" means "resembling typhus" and comes from the neuropsychiatric symptoms common to typhoid and typhus.[4] Despite this similarity of their names, typhoid fever and typhus are distinct diseases and are caused by different species of bacteria.[5]

The impact of this disease fell sharply with the application of 20th century sanitation techniques.[citation

Source : www.wikipedia.org

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UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS

Techniques utilized with all patients, regardless of diagnosis, to protect against bloodborne pathogens such as HIV and hepatitis B. Universal precautions are applied to blood or any body fluid potentially contaminated with blood.

Urinal Bag

The Hygie Urinal bag can replace or be adapted for use with the plastic or stainless steel urinal. No more spills and soiled bed sheets. The super-absorbent pad, which turns organic liquids into gel and blocks smells, helps limit the spread of harmful germs in case of infection. The use of the Urinal bag eases the work of health workers and provides added protection when carrying and disposing of urine. Also, the Urinal bag allows patients of all ages to urinate discreetly, in all circumstances: in bed, in a wheelchair, on a trip, in a car…The Urinal bag is easy to use. At the hospital, urine output can be measured by weighing the bag (tare: 21.5g).

It’s unique super-absorbent pad included in each bag is designed to turn up to 500ml of urine into a gel within seconds. It helps reduce the risks of splashes, spills and germ dispersal (fight against Healthcare-Associated Infections, cross-contamination…).

After using the Urinal Bag, close it securely and discard it in the designated area.

Urine

Urine (from Latin Urinaaef.) is a typically sterile liquid by-product of the body secreted by the kidneys through a process calledurination

 and excreted through the urethra. Cellular metabolism generates numerous by-products, many rich in nitrogen, that require elimination from the bloodstream. These by-products are eventually expelled from the body during urination, the primary method for excreting water-soluble chemicals from the body. These chemicals can be detected and analyzed by urinalysis. Certain disease conditions can result in pathogen-contaminated urine.[1]

Source : www.wikipedia.org 

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V

VEHICLE TRANSMISSION

The transfer of microorganisms by way of contaminated items. For example, blood can carry hepatitis and HIV.

Vomit Bag

The Hygie Emesis bag contains the emesis and helps avoid the usual nuisances: odours, splashes, soiled linen. The super-absorbent pad, turns vomit into gel, blocks smells, and helps limit the spread of harmful germs. Simple to use, the Emesis bag eases the work of health and emergency workers (EMTs, firefighters, etc), and provides added protection when carrying and disposing of organic liquids and matter. The Emesis bag makes vomiting less degrading for the sick and less offensive and risky for surrounding people and healthcare workers.

It’s unique super-absorbent pad included in each bag is designed to turn up to 500ml of urine into a gel within seconds. It helps reduce the risks of splashes, spills and germ dispersal (fight against Healthcare-Associated Infections, cross-contamination…).

After using the Urinal Bag, close it securely and discard it in the designated area.

VRE

Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is an organism that resists the effects of the antibiotic Vancomycin. For many patients infected with VRE, there is no known effective medication. VRE is one of the common causes of nosocomial infection and is easily transmitted on the hands of the health care worker.

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Wash gloves

A ready to use single-use, two-sided, pre-moistened, non-woven, rinse-free glove saturated with a protective washing lotion that is dermatologically tested to be free of known allergens.

The Hygie® Pre-moistened Wash Glove with internal plastic film protector is alcohol free, contains no soap, and requires no rinsing. Ideal for patients with sensitive skin as well as for bedridden, incontinent and/or dependent patients.

  • Single-use
  • Prevents cross contamination
  • Avoids the clean-up / disinfection of conventional bathing accessories
  • Saves time and reduces costs associated with traditional bathing
  • Allows complete bathing for bedridden patients
  • Avoids wet bed linens and wet patient gowns
  • Fragrance free, alcohol free, paraben free
  • Plastic film protector inside glove
  • Eliminates clean-up and disinfection of accessories after bathing
  • No water or drying
  • Safe for all skin types, including newborns and geriatric patients
  • Self-drying; eliminates abrasion to skin surface when drying and helps prevent incomplete drying that can lead to skin maceration.
  • Hypoallergenic and dermatologically tested
  • Conditions and moisturizes skin
  • Does not pill or shed particles
  • WARM in a microwave for more comfort

IDEAL FOR

  • Patients with known/suspected sensitive skin
  • Nursing Homes
  • Home Care
  • Patients who are reluctant to bathe
  • Geriatrics: when a patient is too weak for standard bathing methods
  • Oncology: avoids contaminated linen for patients having chemotherapy
  • Intensive or palliative care: when other bathing methods are impractica
West Nile virus

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-bornezoonoticarbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus in the familyFlaviviridae. This flavivirus is found in temperate and tropical regions of the world. It was first identified in the West Nile subregion in the East African nation of Uganda in 1937. Prior to the mid 1990s, WNV disease occurred only sporadically and was considered a minor risk for humans, until an outbreak in Algeria in 1994, with cases of WNV-caused encephalitis, and the first large outbreak in Romania in 1996, with a high number of cases with neuroinvasive disease. WNV has now spread globally, with the first case in the Western Hemisphere being identified in New York City in 1999;[1] over the next 5 years, the virus spread across the continental United States, north into Canada, and southward into the Caribbean Islands and Latin America. WNV also spread to Europe, beyond the Mediterranean Basin [a new strain of the virus was recently (2012) identified in Italy]. WNV is now considered to be an endemicpathogen in Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe and in the United States, which in 2012 has experienced one of its worst epidemics.

The main mode of WNV transmission is via various species of mosquitoes which are the prime vector, with birds being the most commonly infected animal and serving as the prime reservoir host - especially passerines which are of the largest order (Passeriformes) of birds. WNV has been found in various species of ticks, but current research suggests they are not important vectors of the virus. WNV also infects various mammalspecies, including humans, and has been identified in reptilian species, including alligators and crocodiles, and also in amphibians. Not all animal species which are susceptible to WNV infection – humans included, and not all bird species develop sufficient viral levels to transmit the disease to uninfected mosquitoes, and are thus not considered major factors in WNV transmission.[2][3]

Approximately 80% of West Nile virus infections in humans are subclinical, which cause no symptoms.[4] In the cases where symptoms do occur – termed West Nile fever in cases without neurological disease – the time from infection to the appearance of symptoms (incubation period) is typically between 2 and 15 days. Symptoms may include fever, headaches, fatigue, muscle pain or aches, malaise, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, myalgias and rash. Less than 1% of the cases are severe and result in neurological disease when the central nervous system is affected. People of advanced age, the very young, or those with immunosuppression, either medically induced, such as those taking immunosupressive drugs, or due to a pre-existing medical condition such as HIV infection, are most susceptible. The specific neurological diseases which may occur are West Nile encephalitis, which causes inflammation of the brain, West Nile meningitis, which causes inflammation of the meninges which are the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, West Nile meningoencephalitis, which causes inflammation of the brain and also the meninges surrounding it, and West Nile poliomyelitis - spinal cord inflammation which results in a syndrome similar to polio, which may cause acute flaccid paralysis.

Currently, no vaccine against WNV infection is available. The best method to reduce the rates of WNV infection is mosquito control on the part of municipalities, businesses and individual citizens to reduce breeding populations of mosquitoes in public, commercial and private areas via various means including eliminating standing pools of water where mosquitoes breed, such as in old tires, buckets, disused swimming pools, etc. On an individual basis, the use of personal protective measures to avoid being bitten by an infected mosquito, via the use of mosquito repellent, window screens, avoiding areas where mosquitoes are more prone to congregate, such as near marshes, areas with heavy vegetation etc., and being more vigilant from dusk to dawn when mosquitoes are most active offers the best defense. In the event of being bitten by an infected mosquito, familiarity of the symptoms of WNV on the part of laypersons, physicians and allied health professionals affords the best chance of receiving timely medical treatment which may aid in reducing associated possible complications and also appropriate palliative care.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

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Yellow fever

Yellow fever (also known as Yellow Jack and Bronze John[1]) is an acuteviral hemorrhagic disease.[2] The virus is a 40 to 50 nm enveloped RNA virus with positive sense of the Flaviviridae family.

The yellow fever virus is transmitted by the bite of female mosquitoes (the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and other species) and is found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa, but not in Asia.[3] The only known hosts of the virus are primates and several species of mosquito. The origin of the disease is most likely to be Africa, from where it was introduced to South America through the slave trade in the 16th century. Since the 17th century, several major epidemics of the disease have been recorded in the Americas, Africa, and Europe. In the 19th century, yellow fever was deemed one of the most dangerous infectious diseases.[4]

Yellow fever presents in most cases in humans with fever, chills, anorexia, nausea, muscle pain (with prominent backache) and headache, which generally subsides after several days. In some patients, a toxic phase follows, in which liver damage with jaundice (inspiring the name of the disease) can occur and lead to death. Because of the increased bleeding tendency (bleeding diathesis), yellow fever belongs to the group of hemorrhagic fevers. The WHO estimates that yellow fever causes 200,000 illnesses and 30,000 deaths every year in unvaccinated populations;[5] today nearly 90% of the infections occur in Africa.[6]

A safe and effective vaccine against yellow fever has existed since the middle of the 20th century, and some countries require vaccinations for travelers.[7] Since no therapy is known, vaccination programs are of great importance in affected areas, along with measures to prevent bites and reduce the population of the transmitting mosquito. Since the 1980s, the number of cases of yellow fever has been increasing, making it a re-emerging disease.[8] This is likely due to warfare and social disruption in several African nations.

Source : www.wikipedia.org

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